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Storage Workshop Key Takeaways

Craig Kahlke, Team Leader, Fruit Quality Management
Lake Ontario Fruit Program

August 28, 2019

Storage Workshop Key Takeaways

Mike Basedow and Dan Donahue, CCE Eastern NY Commercial Horticulture

 

 

We both attended the storage workshop in Ithaca on August 8th, and thought we would share the main takeaways. We've included some recent recommendations for Honeycrisp, Gala, NY-1, NY-2, Mac, Cortland, and Empire, along with a quick comparison of utilizing dynamic controlled atmosphere (DCA) storage and 1-MCP.

 

Honeycrisp. For fruit stored in air, fruit should be stored at 38░F, with or without conditioning for 7 days at 50░F. Conditioning Honeycrisp will help reduce soft scald, but will likely exacerbate bitter pit. The decision to condition or not should be determined by your block history. If a block is very vulnerable to bitter pit, it is likely best to skip conditioning. However, if you rarely get bitter pit and often have issues with soft scald, conditioning would be warranted. Air stored fruit can be treated with 1-MCP, as it will help fruit retain acceptable levels of acidity. 1-MCP may also increase core breakdown, but may decrease the incidence of bitter pit and senescent breakdown. An increasing number of growers are using Harvista to manage their Honeycrisp harvest. Chris's recent work found that Harvista decreased soft scald, but increased bitter pit incidence on stored fruit. Fruit treated with a combination of Harvista and 1-MCP also had a greater incidence of leather blotch. For fruit destined for CA storage, CO2 injury can be problematic, and is generally worse further south in the state. CO2 injury can be controlled with diphenylamine (DPA), or by delaying CA storage by up to 4 weeks. In Chris's studies, fruit that were delayed CA storage for up to 4 weeks and treated with 1-MCP had very little loss of fruit quality, but greasiness and core browning did increase to a small extent. The overall recommendation for Honeycrisp currently is air storage with 1-MCP to avoid CA related injuries.

 

Gala. A major concern for Gala right now is stem end flesh browning (SEFB).

So far we know that:

ĚHarvista decreases the incidence of SEFB.

ĚCA in general is very helpful for maintain Gala quality, though differing the values of CO2 concentration in CA storage showed inconsistent effects on SEFB.

ĚDCA at .5% O2 will help to further delay browning development, but will not completely prevent it. DCA may also prevent core browning.

Ě1-MCP in storage appears to not have an effect on SEFB. Washington State and Ontario studies suggest delayed cooling, paired with early CA storage, may help to reduce some browning disorders. This approach needs more study in New York conditions.

Regardless of storage treatment, being on top of harvest date (erring earlier than later) and planting high-coloring strains like Brookfield that can be picked earlier are two of the best strategies for successful long-term storage of Gala.

 

NY-1. For successful long-term CA storage of NY-1, the current recommendation is to focus on your harvest management. NY-1 should be picked as early as possible to avoid fruit with high internal ethylene, though this may require compromising between ethylene and fruit color. Fruit should be stored at 38░F like Honeycrisp to reduce stem end flesh browning. Chris does not currently recommend 1-MCP for NY-1, as it aggravated flesh browning in his CA storage trial.

 

NY-2. Similar to NY-1, Chris suggests early harvest timing is key to maintaining good quality for long term CA storage. NY-2 should also be stored at 38░F. 1-MCP is recommended for NY-2. In Chris's studies, 1-MCP helped retain firmness, and reduced superficial scald and stem end flesh browning. It did, however, lead to some additional general flesh browning. Some of Chris's future work will determine how NY-1 and NY-2 respond to DCA storage and harvest management PGR's.

 

McIntosh. 1-MCP helps keep macs firm on the shelf after long-term storage, and will also help reduce superficial scald and senescent breakdown. It may, however, slightly increase CO2injury. DCA storage can be used in macs to reduce CO2injury.

 

Cortland are hard to control against superficial scald regardless of postharvest treatments, but both DCA and 1-MCP help to some extent. DCA plus 1-MCP returned the best fruit in Chris's trials, but the added expense might not make this approach feasible commercially. DCA helps maintain fruit quality regardless of 1-MCP treatment, but a tasting panel found that Cortland stored with 1-MCP maintained a better level of Ĺsnap' after storage.

 

1-MCP treated Empire tend to retain their firmness better, but these may pick up more CO2injury and flesh browning. For Empire flesh browning, the best way to keep levels down is to harvest at proper maturity. Later picks will pick up more browning, regardless of 1-MCP or DCA practices.

 

How does DCA stack up to 1-MCP? Dynamic controlled atmosphere (DCA) is a storage method that actively measures fruit response to storage oxygen levels to determine the optimum oxygen level for that storage room. By keeping the oxygen level just above the "low oxygen limit", respiration rate can be reduced to a minimum. By slowing respiration further, fruit quality out of DCA storage is higher, with less superficial scald. Below are some of the benefits (+) and negatives (-) of using DCA and 1-MCP.

 

DCA:

  • Chemical Free
  • Easily installed in existing high quality storages
  • Can inhibit superficial scald and some internal flesh browning disorders
  • Need to have that high quality facility-Higher upfront investment costs
  • Need to select uniform fruit to serve as your samples
  • Requires training of storage operator to interpret fruit responses to O2levels
  • Greater potential for quality loss after storage, unless combined with 1-MCP1-MCP
  • Applied as a gas at low concentrations for 24 hours or less
  • High quality rooms not required
  • No investment on computerized CA technology
  • No risk of low O2injury
  • Flexible timing of 1-MCP application
  • Can maintain fruit quality in air storage
  • Can inhibit superficial scald development
  • Maintains quality parameters, like firmness and acidity, during the marketing chain
  • Not for organic use
  • Ongoing cost every time you apply
  • Can increase some physiological disorders, like CO2injury.


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Upcoming Events

Apple Leafcurling Midge IPM - Webinar

Event Offers DEC Credits

February 16, 2023

In recent years, the apple leafcurling midge (ALCM) has become an increasingly problematic pest in many orchards across the northeast.

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Western NY Fruit Conference - "State of the Industry"

Event Offers DEC Credits

February 27 - February 28, 2023
Henrietta, NY

CCE-LOF are excited to bring you a muti-day fruit conference in WNY! This is replacing our Winter Fruit Schools. Tentative Agenda is now available.

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Fire Blight Informational Series - Michigan Fire Blight Meeting

March 1, 2023 : Michigan Fire Blight Meeting
Traverse City, MI

The team leading the national fire blight SCRI grant "Comprehensive Fire Blight Management for the United States" is hosting a March meeting (in person or virtual) as well as a webinar series. This multi-state series will address new research on best management practices for fire blight control. You are encouraged to attend these events which will provide cutting edge research recommendations into how to manage fire blight. Each session eligible for some DEC credits (see below for quantities, and bottom of article for direction on how to receive credit).

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Announcements

Save the Date! - Scroll down for Upcoming Events

Have you missed a meeting recently? All recorded LOFP hosted webinars can be found on our YouTube Channel https://www.youtube.com/c/LakeOntarioFruitProgram

NOW - please scroll down to find the link to the short NY Herbicide Resistance Survey!

Courses Available All Year - Cornell Small Farms Program New Season of Online Courses-Enroll Now!

2023

2-5 Feb - NOFA NY Virtual Winter Conference

8 Feb - Becker Forum - All Day - Oncenter, Syracuse

12-15 Feb - 66th Annual IFTA Conference & Tours - Grand Rapids, MI - $650

16 Feb - Apple Leafcurling Midge IPM - Webinar - 1:30-2:30pm - Registration Now Open

27 & 28 Feb - WNY Winter Fruit Conference - Registration Now Open


7-10 Mar - 2023 Annual Meeting & Conference of the 10th NASS & NASGA - San Luis Obispo, California

14 Mar - USDA/RMA Listening Session - Spring 2023 Apple Grower Meeting -
The Risk Management Agency (RMA) is inviting interested parties to participate in a listening session to discuss the proposed changes to the apple crop insurance program. Free - Rochester

14-15 Mar - Curso de Desarrollo de Liderazgo - contact Tim Shenk

15 Mar - Fire Blight Informational Webinar Series - Using biopesticides to help control fire blight - 7-8PM

16 Mar - CCE Stone Fruit Updates Webinar - registration coming soon

17 & 21 Mar - Pre-Exam Training to Become a Certified Pesticide Applicator - Wayne Co CCE - $50

21 Mar - Strep Resistant Erwinia amylovora in New York States - 1-2:30pm, virtual, registration coming soon

24 Mar - Test to Become a Certified Pesticide Applicator - Wayne Co CCE - $100 



13 Jun - Fire Blight Informational Webinar Series - Pruning and sanitation strategies to reduce fire blight - 7-8PM

18 Oct - Fire Blight Informational Webinar Series - Using weather and environmental conditions to optimize biologicals and biopesticides for bloom production - 7-8PM


Food Safety Virtual Office Hours

Cornell Institute of Food Safety "Virtual Office Hours", Tuesdays Noon to 1pm https://cals.cornell.edu/institute-for-food-safety/resources/virtual-office-hours

Past recorded virtual office hours can be found on YouTube: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLZJs5b7KUuvfcquH3ZtQHo5dSmF2m5MdQ


Webinar Recordings

Check out the recordings of some recent webinars:

INTERPOMA - GENEVA - WEBINAR

Employment Opportunities

The CCE-LOF Program has created a space to share Lake Ontario Fruit Region local employment opportunities. See listings and details for sharing listings at https://lof.cce.cornell.edu/submission.php?id=890&crumb=business|business

Pollinator Resouces

Now available Pollinator Resource Links


Meeting Recordings Now Available

Did you miss the recent meeting?  Check and see if we recorded it and added it to our website or Lake Ontario Fruit Program YouTube Channel.

Honeycrisp Meetup recordings available here.

Why are my trees growing so poorly? recording available here.

Additional Recorded Webinars listing with recording and resource link are available at
https://lof.cce.cornell.edu/submission.php?id=838&crumb=crops|crops|apples|crop*38



New Publication on Growing Pawpaws

Are you a fan of pawpaws? These custardy fruits can be hard to come across, so this guide provides information on how to grow your own pawpaw from seed, and how to care for grafted seedlings. Pdf on growing now available.​ https://lof.cce.cornell.edu/submission.php?id=799&crumb=crops|crops|unusual_fruit|crop*50

New Weed Management Technology Survey

Want to move away from herbicide reliance? Are you using novel technologies to manage weeds? We want to know about it to inform our weed science research. A team of weed scientists from University of California Davis, Oregon State University, and Cornell University are asking berry, tree fruit, tree nut, and vine crop growers to take 5 to 10 minutes and answer this short and anonymous survey. Weed Technology Survey link: https://cornell.ca1.qualtrics.com/jfe/form/SV_bEpfAijoP7puQDP

For more information on this survey please visit http://blogs.cornell.edu/swd1/2020/12/02/new-weed-management-technology/


Pollinator Webinar Series - Summer 2020

The Pollinator Webinar Series presented by Penn State cover bee health and pollination services.



Bloom Pesticides for Pollinator Health

A reference table created by Janet van Zoeren and Anna Wallis, is now available at https://lof.cce.cornell.edu/submission.php?id=711&crumb=pests|pests.

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