Lake Ontario Fruit Program Enrollment

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  • Food Safety
  • Variety Evaluation
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  • Pest Management
  • Cultural Practices

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Choosing the Right Rootstocks for SnapDragon and RubyFrost

Mario Miranda Sazo, Cultural Practices
Lake Ontario Fruit Program

December 23, 2013

SnapDragon is a very precocious and weak growing scion similar to and often weaker than its Honeycrisp parent. SnapDragon's ability to set a heavy crop load in years two and three coupled with its low vigor can challenge your need to fill the tree spacing while producing marketable fruit. SnapDragon blooms slightly ahead of Honeycrisp, ahead of RubyFrost and overlapping with Empire. SnapDragon will do best at close spacings (3ft) using the more vigorous M.9 clones (Pajam 2, Nic 29), or G.41 (comparable to the large M.9 clones, fire blight resistant). G.41 will be especially useful when orchards are replanted on old orchard sites. An additional option is G.935 for weaker soils or where growers prefer slightly wider spacings of 4ft. RubyFrost is a very precocious, moderate vigor scion with potential for high yields of large size fruit. RubyFrost is more vigorous than SnapDragon but not as vigorous as McIntosh. This cultivar has performed well at either 3 or 4 feet spacings using the weaker clone of M.9 (M.9T337). It will also do well with B.9 or the fire blight resistant G.11 rootstock. If trees will be planted on replanted soil then G.41 will be an excellent choice. The following list is a brief review of the most promising Cornell Geneva rootstocks. Geneva® 214: It is a super-dwarf Geneva® apple rootstock. It was released in 2010. It has excellent stoolbed propagation characteristics which may make it easier to introduce quickly. Geneva® 969: It is a new semi-dwarf Geneva® apple rootstock. It was released in 2010. It has excellent stoolbed propagation characteristics which may make it easier to introduce quickly. It performs well in northern climates and is free standing. It may be an excellent stock for weak growing cultivars in northern climates like Honeycrisp and MN1914. Geneva® 890: It is a new semi-vigorous Geneva® apple rootstock. It was released in 2010. It has excellent stoolbed propagation characteristic, is free standing, precocious and productive. It is intended for the processing orchards of NY, PA, VA, NC and MI. Geneva® 11: It is fire blight resistant but is not immune. It also has good resistance to Phytophthora root rot, but it is not resistant to woolly apple aphids or apple replant disease. G.11 has good layerbed and nursery characteristics. It is proving to be an excellent replacement for M.9. Geneva® 41: It is the most efficient and top performer Geneva® apple dwarf rootstock in our trials. It has excellent fruit size and induces wide branch angles. It is highly resistant to fire blight and is also resistant to Phytophthora and woolly apple aphids. It appears to have some tolerance of apple replant disease and has good winter hardiness and appears to have less tendency for biennial bearing with Honeycrisp than other stocks. In the stoolbed, G.41 is a shy rooter and requires specialized rooting. Geneva® 935: It is similar in size to M.26 but is more productive. It induces wide branch angles, is highly resistant to fire blight and Phytophthora, and appears to have some tolerance of apple replant disease. It also appears to be very winter hardy, but it is not resistant to woolly apple aphid. Fruit size has been slightly smaller than M.9. It is an excellent new rootstock for weak growing cultivars like spur-type Delicious, Honeycrisp, Sweet Tango or NY1. Production and Availability of Cornell Geneva Rootstocks. G.11: Its production in 2010 was about 175,000 liners. Substantial new stoolbeds have been planted which should increase production to 300,000 liners in 2011 and 800,000 liners in 2012. G.41: Its production in 2010 was only 10,000 liners. Substantial new stoolbeds have been planted which should increase production to 100,000 liners in 2011 and 300,000 liners in 2012. G.935: Its production in 2010 was only 30,000 liners. Substantial new stoolbeds have been planted which should increase production to 100,000 liners in 2011 and 300,000 liners in 2012.

Best Rootstocks for SnapDragon and RubyFrost (pdf; 178KB)

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Upcoming Events

Good Agricultural Practices (GAPs) Training & Food Safety Plan-Writing Workshop

February 2 - February 3, 2023
Newark, NY

Goals of this workshop:

  • Understand how GAPs (Good Agricultural Practices) impact produce safety, and how you can improve practices on your farm to reduce the risk of microbial contamination
  • Learn the difference between a FSMA Inspection and a GAPs audit, and learn what is needed to have a USDA GAP/GHP audit and the 2 types (Basic & Harmonized)
  • Begin writing a farm food safety plan that complies with a USDA GAP/GHP Audit

This workshop is targeted at Mott's growers who need to have a successful GAP audit for the 2023 harvest. However, all farms and organizations are invited to attend.  

We will have several breaks, including a lunch break, scattered throughout the day, but feel free to step away whenever you need to. Lunch and snacks provided. Note: All times are approximate. Time spent on each topic varies depending on audience and questions/discussion. There will be time for questions at the end of each section and a final opportunity for questions when we close for the day.  

Instructors Confirmed: Craig Kahlke (CCE-LOF), Robert Hadad (CCE-CVP), Caroline Boutard-Hunt (CCE-Yates), Judy Wright (CCE-Seneca), and Representatives from NYS Dept. of Ag & Mkts.

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How Profitable Will My New Orchard Investment Be? 1-day, hands-on skills class

February 7, 2023
Highland, NY

The Eastern NY Commercial Hort Team and the Lake Ontario Fruit Team are offering a 1-day, hands-on course at 5 locations in NYS in January and February for tree fruit farms on using farm financial information and other resources to make decisions about long-term investments or changes to their business.  We will apply the techniques covered in the 8-part webinar series in December to scenarios using sample financial data from fruit farms in NYS.

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Apple Leafcurling Midge IPM - Webinar

Event Offers DEC Credits

February 16, 2023

In recent years, the apple leafcurling midge (ALCM) has become an increasingly problematic pest in many orchards across the northeast.

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Save the Date! - Scroll down for Upcoming Events

Have you missed a meeting recently? All recorded LOFP hosted webinars can be found on our YouTube Channel

NOW - please scroll down to find the link to the short NY Herbicide Resistance Survey!

Courses Available All Year - Cornell Small Farms Program New Season of Online Courses-Enroll Now!


26 Jan - Innovative new technology to implement PACMAN (Part 2) & How's your adoption going?- 12pm (Eastern) - online - registration required

16 Feb - Apple Leafcurling Midge IPM - Webinar - 1:30-2:30pm - Registration Now Open

27 & 28 Feb - WNY Winter Fruit Conference - Registration Now Open

14 Mar - USDA/RMA Listening Session - Spring 2023 Apple Grower Meeting -
The Risk Management Agency (RMA) is inviting interested parties to participate in a listening session to discuss the proposed changes to the apple crop insurance program. Free - Rochester

15 Mar - Fire Blight Informational Webinar Series - Using biopesticides to help control fire blight - 7-8PM

13 Jun - Fire Blight Informational Webinar Series - Pruning and sanitation strategies to reduce fire blight - 7-8PM

18 Oct - Fire Blight Informational Webinar Series - Using weather and environmental conditions to optimize biologicals and biopesticides for bloom production - 7-8PM

Food Safety Virtual Office Hours

Cornell Institute of Food Safety "Virtual Office Hours", Tuesdays Noon to 1pm

Past recorded virtual office hours can be found on YouTube:

Webinar Recordings

Check out the recordings of some recent webinars:


Employment Opportunities

The CCE-LOF Program has created a space to share Lake Ontario Fruit Region local employment opportunities. See listings and details for sharing listings at|business

Pollinator Resouces

Now available Pollinator Resource Links

Meeting Recordings Now Available

Did you miss the recent meeting?  Check and see if we recorded it and added it to our website or Lake Ontario Fruit Program YouTube Channel.

Honeycrisp Meetup recordings available here.

Why are my trees growing so poorly? recording available here.

Additional Recorded Webinars listing with recording and resource link are available at|crops|apples|crop*38

New Publication on Growing Pawpaws

Are you a fan of pawpaws? These custardy fruits can be hard to come across, so this guide provides information on how to grow your own pawpaw from seed, and how to care for grafted seedlings. Pdf on growing now available.​|crops|unusual_fruit|crop*50

New Weed Management Technology Survey

Want to move away from herbicide reliance? Are you using novel technologies to manage weeds? We want to know about it to inform our weed science research. A team of weed scientists from University of California Davis, Oregon State University, and Cornell University are asking berry, tree fruit, tree nut, and vine crop growers to take 5 to 10 minutes and answer this short and anonymous survey. Weed Technology Survey link:

For more information on this survey please visit

Pollinator Webinar Series - Summer 2020

The Pollinator Webinar Series presented by Penn State cover bee health and pollination services.

Bloom Pesticides for Pollinator Health

A reference table created by Janet van Zoeren and Anna Wallis, is now available at|pests.